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Ketamine , sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia . [4] It induces a trance -like state while providing pain relief , sedation , and memory loss . [5] Other uses include for chronic pain and for sedation in intensive care . [6] [7] Heart function, breathing, and airway reflexes generally remain functional. [5] Effects typically begin within five minutes when given by injection with the main effects lasting up to 25 minutes. [3] [4]

Common side effects include psychological reactions as the medication wears off. [8] These reactions may include agitation, confusion, or hallucinations . [4] [8] [9] Elevated blood pressure and muscle tremors are relatively common, while low blood pressure and a decrease in breathing are less so. [4] [9] Spasms of the larynx may rarely occur. [4] Ketamine has been classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist ; it also acts on opioid receptors and monoamine transporters among others. [10]

Ketamine was discovered in 1962. [3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines , of the most important medications needed in a basic health system . [11] It is available as a generic medication . [4] The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.08 and 0.32 USD per dose. [12] Ketamine is also used as a recreational drug . [13]

Since it suppresses breathing much less than most other available anaesthetics, [14] ketamine is used in medicine as an anesthetic; however, due to the hallucinations it may cause, it is not typically used as a primary anesthetic, although it is the anaesthetic of choice when reliable ventilation equipment is not available.

Ketamine is frequently used in severely injured people and appears to be safe in this group. [15] A 2011 clinical practice guideline supports the use of ketamine as a dissociative sedative in emergency medicine . [5] It is the drug of choice for people in traumatic shock who are at risk of hypotension . [16] Low blood pressure is harmful in people with severe head injury [17] and ketamine is least likely to cause low blood pressure, often even able to prevent it. [18] [19]

According to addiction researcher Martin A. Plant, many people go through a period of self-redefinition before initiating recreational drug use. They tend to view using drugs as part of a general lifestyle that involves belonging to a subculture that they associate with heightened status and the challenging of social norms. Plant says, “From the user's point of view there are many positive reasons to become part of the milieu of drug taking. The reasons for drug use appear to have as much to do with needs for friendship, pleasure and status as they do with unhappiness or poverty. Becoming a drug taker, to many people, is a positive affirmation rather than a negative experience.” [2]

Anthropological research has suggested that man "may have evolved to counter-exploit plant neurotoxins ". The ability to use botanical chemicals to serve the function of endogenous neurotransmitters may have improved survival rates, conferring an evolutionary advantage. A typically restrictive prehistoric diet may have emphasised the apparent benefit of consuming psychoactive drugs , which had themselves evolved to imitate neurotransmitters. [4] Chemical–ecological adaptations, and the genetics of hepatic enzymes , particularly cytochrome P450 , have led researchers to propose that "humans have shared a co-evolutionary relationship with psychotropic plant substances that is millions of years old." [5]

The concept of "responsible drug use" is that a person can use drugs recreationally or otherwise with reduced or eliminated risk of negatively affecting other aspects of one's life or other people's lives. Advocates of this philosophy point to the many well-known artists and intellectuals who have used drugs, experimentally or otherwise, with few detrimental effects on their lives. Responsible drug use becomes problematic only when the use of the substance significantly interferes with the user's daily life.

In efforts to curtail recreational drug use, governments worldwide introduced several laws prohibiting the possession of almost all varieties of recreational drugs during the 20th century. The West's " War on Drugs " however, is now facing increasing criticism. Evidence is insufficient to tell if behavioral interventions help prevent recreational drug use in children. [15]

Alcohol is the most widely used drug in Australia tried one or more times in their lives by 86.2% of Australians aged 12 years and over, while 34.8% of Australians aged 12 years and over have used cannabis one or more times in their lives. [18]

Research chemicals are also known know as " designer drugs ". They are a novel class of drugs whose chemical structure has been altered just enough so that they are not explicitly scheduled according to the law. They are often nicknamed "bath salts" or "legal highs" because of the way they are legally marketed and their effects are usually very similar to the parent illegal drug from which they are derived, but the research chemical by itself remains legal and unscheduled, making it attractive for several reasons.

Because research chemicals are (still) legal in most countries and produce the same high you would get from an illegal substance, it makes them a very attracting product for users and resellers alike. Considering we can manufacture them legally and cheaply here in the USA, you can buy research chemicals from us and benefit from high purity and amazingly low prices. You can then either use research chemicals for your own consumption or re-sell them for a major profit, without risking criminal charges.

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